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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. ARCHAEOLOGY IN 1906 1 By George H. Chase Harvard University In the field of classical archaeology, the year 1906 was marked rather by steady progress in the prosecution of work already begun than by the inception of new enterprises. Nevertheless, it was not without its important, and even startling discoveries, and these, as so often happens, were usually made in places where they were least expected. The plan of this account will be in the main topo- graphical. I shall speak first of Asia Minor and the Aegean islands, then of the mainland of Greece and the islands of the Ionian Sea, then of Italy and especially Rome. In Asia Minor, the most extensive excavation was carried on by the Germans. At Pergamon, Dr. Dorpfeld and his assistants con- tinued their exploration of the lower slopes of the Acropolis and of the surrounding country. They report the discovery of the gymna- sium for full-grown men, larger than the gymnasia for boys and young men, which had been found before, and containing a large lec- ture-hall in the form of a Greek theater; further, the beginning of the investigation of several mounds in the valley of the Caicus, one of which is believed to be the burial place of the kings of Pergamon. One of these mounds, which is dated in the second century, b. c, has already yielded a large stone sarcophagus containing a beautiful funeral wreath of gold, composed of leaves of ivy with a figure of Eros in front, a type similar to the wreaths that have previously been dis- covered in the Crimea. At Miletus, Dr. Wiegand continued his exploration of the city and the sacred way to Didyma, but no report of the year's activity has as yet appeared. In the last campaigns, early Greek levels are said to have been struck in many places, and the finds of early vases promise to throw light on some of the difficult problems of the nature 1 The article is confined to 1906, as the data for 1907 are still incomplete. The latter year will be treated in a subsequent number of the Journal. 19 20 THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL and influence of Ionic art in the archaic period. Of the definitive publication of this important excavation, the first instalment, a map of the Milesian peninsula, with a text by Wilski, was issued by the Berlin Museums during the year. At Ephesus, the Austrians explored the street leading from the theater to the Magnesian Gate and the eastern portico of the Greek agora. They also have begun the official publication of the results of their work since 1899 with a volume on the topography and history of the city, the bronze statues, and some of the buildings. But the most striking discoveries in Asia Minor are those made by Mr. Hogarth for the British Museum at the site of the temple of Ephesian Artemis. Here, on a site already worked over by Woods, Mr. Hogarth had the good fortune to strike some repositories of treasure which are among the richest that have been discovered in modern times. The finds almost without exception date from the seventh century b. c, and some are probably even earlier. They include coins, terra-cottas, small bronzes, jewels of gold and silver and objects of bone and ivory. Some of the coins are said to be of the eighth century b. c, so that they antedate any coins previously known. With them were found a number of simple lumps of metal which probably served as a medium of exchange before the invention of coinage. Others are stamped with the four characters FAAF, to be interpreted, perhaps, as inscriptions of the Lydian king Alyattes. Very interesting, too, are the early terra-cotta images of Artemis, which represent her not as the many-breasted goddess with whom we are familiar in later art, but in purely human form, often with a child in her arms. In others she has the form of the so-called Persian Artemis, grasping an animal with each hand and sometimes with wings upon her back. Often she is accompanied by her sacred hawk, and among the votive offerings of gold, silver, and bronze, the hawk and the bee (which was also associated with the Ephesian goddess) are of frequent occurrence. Other votives consist of thin plates of gold representing parts of the body, doubtless ex-votos dedicated for cures, and interesting as among the earliest examples of such offerings from Greek sites. Others — and these form the most valuable part of the treasure — consist of personal ornaments dedicated for the use of the goddess. They were found separated from the rest of the treas- ARCHAEOLOGY IN igo6 21 ure, in the center of the temple, where, it is supposed, the image of the goddess stood. They include bracelets, necklaces, earrings, fibulae, and plates of gold decorated with designs in repousse", intended to be sewed on garments. The latter certainly seem reminiscent of Mycenaean forms, and the connection with prehistoric art is further emphasized by the occurrence on some of them of the double axe which plays so prominent a part in the prehistoric civilization of Crete. There are also evidences of trade with Egypt and the East, sphinxes and Egyptian scarabs, a lion of distinctly Assyrian type, etc. The treasure, in fact, reflects in a remarkable way the widespread com- mercial relations of the Ephesians of the seventh century and the many influences which went to form the art of Ionia. Passing to the islands of the Aegean, we have to note, first of all, that in Crete, which has furnished so many surprises in recent years, the explorations of 1906 produced no important new material. At Knossos, Dr. Evans confined himself to necessary work of repair and reconstruction in the palace. At Palaikastro, the excavations of the British School have been temporarily abandoned, leaving a part of the town to be examined at a later time, when knowledge of the Minoan Age may be more definite. At Phaistos, the Italians found remains of a lower city on the southern slope of the hill, below the palace. Archaeologists will read with interest Professor R. M. Burrows' work, The Discoveries in Crete, just published by E. P. Dutton and Co. Farther north, Mr. Kinch, continuing his successful work at Lin- dos in Rhodes, excavated a very early temple and discovered the necropolis of the city, which appears to have been in use from the geometric period to the early part of the fifth century. Most impor- tant of all, near Vrulia, at the southern end of the island, he found remains of the ancient city of Rhodes, dating from the period of the "Rhodian" vases, a site which is sure to produce interesting results. At Delos, the French continued their excavations, begun in 1903 at the expense of the Due de Loubat. A brief report for this year speaks of the uncovering of several well-preserved houses in the neigh- borhood of the theater, of six archaic lions of marble which formed the decoration of an esplanade near the sacred lake, of a colossal head of Dionysus, said to be the finest piece of sculpture found at 22 THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL Delos for fifteen years, and of a statue of Polyhymnia superior to the well-known Polyhymnia in the Berlin Museum. At Tenos, Mr. Graindor discovered the temple of Poseidon, a colonnade, an exedra, sculptures, and inscriptions. Of his single finds, the most important is a large block of marble bearing a sun-dial and giving also the directions of the winds, the course of the sun, and the seasons of the year. An epigram records that this astronomical work was modeled on that of Andronicus of Cyrrhus, already familiar as the builder of the so-called Tower of the Winds at Athens. From the inscription it appears that Andronicus was a native not of Cyrrhus in Syria, as has commonly been supposed, but of another town of the same name in Macedonia; and that he was an astronomer and an interpreter of the poems of Aratus of Soli. On the mainland of Greece, the most remarkable discoveries were made by the British School, whose members for several years have taken Laconia for their special province. For some time they had noticed, in the hands of the children of Sparta, small figures of sheet lead, which were offered for sale to travelers. Investigation showed that they were found on the right bank of the Eurotas, about one- half mile south of the modern bridge. A trial excavation in the field nearby brought to light inscriptions of the second century A. D., recording the dedication of strigils to Artemis Orthia. On each stone, under the letters of the inscription, was a cutting into which the strigil had been fitted, and one slab had a rusty strigil still in place. In this way the site was identified at the very outset as that of the famous shrine of Artemis at which the Spartan boys were scourged (Pausanias iii. 16. 10). Further search showed that below the level where the inscriptions were found, there was an extensive pavement of concrete, one and one-half meters thick, a relic of Roman times, and lower still foundation walls of Greek date. But the most important results were the small finds made about these foundation walls. They included great numbers of fragments of Corinthian and geometric vases, small bronzes and ivories, terra-cotta masks, and especially thousands of the small lead figures — all evidently votive offerings thrown out from time to time from the temple and later used as filling material. The masks, of which some forty complete specimens and fragments of sixty more were found, are of life size, and sometimes so realistic that they ARCHAEOLOGY IN 1906 23 have almost the appearance of death masks. The lead figures are about one and one-half inches high, and of archaic style. The com- monest subjects are warriors, mounted and on foot, of which there are some fifty different types. Female figures are also fairly common, and small wreaths are of very frequent occurrence. Owing to the difficulty of penetrating the layer of concrete, the site was hardly more than tapped in a few places, yet the number of lead figures already taken out is estimated at 3,000, and the number of wreaths at 7,000. So great is the interest which the finds have aroused in England that the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies has opened a subscription for the excavation of the whole area about the temple, and at last we seem likely to learn something about the topogra- phy of ancient Sparta, which up to now, in spite of several attempts at excavation, has been practically unknown. 1 Already the inves- tigations of the English have produced some results outside of the precinct of Artemis. Members of the School have traced the line of the later walls throughout most of their extent, and have cleared one end of the stage of the theater. Another product of their activity is an excellent catalogue of the local museum, prepared by Messrs. Tod and Wace and issued by the Clarendon Press. In comparison with the discoveries at Sparta, the results of other excavations are decidedly less important, though often not without interest. At Argos, where Mr. Vollgraff's excavations since 1902 have revealed many relics of prehistoric settlements and of the later Greek town, two new temples of the Greek period were discovered in 1906, as well as many architectural fragments and inscriptions. At Epidauros, Mr. Kavvadias completed the work he has been carrying on since 1903, and the publication of the second volume of his Fouilles d'Epidaure is soon to be expected. At Athens, Dr. Noack made a new examination of the city wall, especially in the neighbor- hood of the Dipylon gate, and discovered new evidence of the hasty construction of the Themistoclean wall in several archaic reliefs and pre-Persian inscriptions which had been used as building material. At Sunium, Mr. Stais, excavating for the Greek Society, examined the ground about the temple of Poseidon, and found a colossal archaic 1 A recent report states that during the campaign of 1907, considerable remains of the temple of Athena Chalkioikos have been discovered. 24 THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL statue of the Apollo type, together with the torso of another similar figure. They are thought to be statues which were injured during the Persian invasion, and afterward used for leveling up the terrace around the later temple. And finally, at Thebes, Mr. Keramopoulos discovered near the modern agora the ruins of a burned Mycenaean building, with fragments of frescoes and a mass of pottery. He identifies the structure as the House of Cadmus, mentioned by Pau- sanias (ix. 12.3), and argues that the walls are those of the chambers of Harmonia and Semele of which Pausanias saw the ruins. In the western region of Greece, the most interesting work of recent years is undoubtedly that which Dr. Dorpfeld, supported by private subscriptions, is carrying on at Leucas, in an attempt to prove by the actual discovery of prehistoric setdements that this island is the Ithaca of Homer. Of his results only very brief reports have been published to the effect that he has discovered a prehistoric settlement over a mile long, with simple walls, pottery with incised designs, and a few fragments with painted decoration, and that the clearing of a cave has brought to light stone implements and fragments of monochrome pottery, such as were found in the second city at Hissarlik. The long settlement Dr. Dorpfeld holds to be the town of Ithaca. Of course the discovery of prehistoric settlements in Leucas does not by any means prove Dr. Ddrpfeld's theory, and as yet the excavations seem to have revealed no ruins comparable to those of Mycenae and Tiryns, but the Leucas theory is certainly one that must be reckoned with in all future attempts to unravel the topography of the Odyssey. From Italy, as usual, there is less to record than from Greece, though the new law allowing foreigners to excavate has gone into effect, and one of the foreign schools, the French School at Rome, has taken advantage of it and begun work in the great necropolis of Bologna. That the Italians have not entirely given up their former notions, however, is shown by the recent decision of the Minister of Public Instruction that the excavation of Herculaneum shall be carried out by the Italian Government, with Italian money and without foreign aid, "although gratefully taking into account the advice of prominent foreigners, such as Professor Charles Waldstein, of New York and Cambridge, England." In Rome, Commendatore Boni continues to hold the center of ARCHAEOLOGY IN 1906 25 the stage and to propound problems to which he offers no very satis- factory solution. His most startling recent discovery was made in connection with his work in the Forum of Trajan. Investigations about the Column of Trajan revealed the fact that in some past age a large excavation had been made under the pedestal and a chamber in the pedestal itself had been filled up. The clearing of the chamber brought to light a window in the southwest side, and along the north- west side a place where something, perhaps a sarcophagus, had been cut away. More remarkable still, under the concrete pavement of the Forum were found the remains of a Roman road dating, according to Signor Boni, from the first century, a. d., and walls of buildings some of which may go back to Republican times. The importance of this discovery lies in the problem which it raises as to the inter- pretation of the inscription on the column, ad declarandum quantae altitudinis mons et locus tantis operibus sit egestus. This has usually been taken to mean that the height of the column was intended to indi- cate the depth of earth removed between the Quirinal and the Capito- line to make room for the Basilica Ulpia and the other buildings of the Forum. But it is obvious that if a first-century road exists below the present level, the inscription cannot be interpreted in this way. Signor Boni's discovery, therefore, has precipitated a discussion that reminds one forcibly of the famous controversy over the Enneakrounos at Athens. On the one hand, we have Signor Boni, relying on the archaeological evidence and attempting a new interpretation of the inscription, on the other, the philologians, who propose various new interpretations and are agreed only in holding that Boni's interpreta- tion cannot possibly be correct. It certainly is true that Boni's inter- pretation seems very violent. In his latest article on the subject (Nuova Antologia, March 1, 1907), he paraphrases the inscription "per far vedere di quanto fosse sopraelevato con si grandi opere il monte ed il piano," "to show how much the hill and the level were raised by such great works." He interprets mons as "the slope of the Quirinal, the height of which had been doubled by the supporting walls, the porticoes and the loggie of the hemicycles built upon it," and locus in a general sense as equivalent to "locality," "site." It must be admitted that this interpretation is forced. But the proposals of other interpreters are hardly more convincing. It has been argued, 26 THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL for instance, that the inscription has reference to the quarry from which the materials for the column were taken; or that the mention of the mons et locus is meant to give official sanction to the tradition of a removal of a ridge at this point before the time of Trajan; or that the height of the column is equivalent to one dimension of a cube representing the mass of materials used in constructing the buildings of the Forum. The problem of reconciling the evidence of the inscrip- tion and that of the excavations is certainly a difficult one, and it is to be hoped that further investigation will throw some new light on the problem. In the Forum Romanum, part of an inscription, L. Naevius, L. f. .... was found in the travertine pavement near the column of Phocas, and it is conjectured that this Naevius is the same as the praetor whose name appears on the back of the relief of Mettius Curtius. As the inscription of another praetor was found on the steps of the column of Phocas in 1811, Professor Hulsen conjectures that both inscriptions were connected with the Tribunal Praetorium which stood in front of the Basilica Julia. These are the most important discoveries reported from Rome itself. Outside of Rome new discoveries of tombs are reported in a number of places, especially at Ancona and Metapohtum; the theater at Verona is being entirely excavated and will soon take its place beside the amphitheater as one of the sights of that most interesting city; at Castel Porziano, not far from Ostia, a beautiful copy of the Diskobolos of Myron was found and later was presented by the king to the National Museum. It is discussed in the first number of a new periodical, the Bolletino d'arte, which is to be issued monthly.